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Manny's Eighth Grade Adventure

Period 1/2 2011

Welcome to Mr. Ullrich's Blog! This blog is for 8th Grade Earth Science and Physical Science students. We will learn topics such as Astronomy, Geology and Meteorology. This blog will give us a place to discuss, learn and develop these topics during the year. If you are not from our class please post lots of comments!

by Manny D

teacher: Mr. Ullrich

Class Assignments
Blog Entries

Title: Space Exploration-Due December 5th (11/28/11)
Description: Space Exploration-

Imagine you can explore any object in space. For this assignment you are to choose any celestial object that you would like to explore. It can be but is not limited to objects in our own solar system. Be creative and proof read before you post your article.

Your blog article MUST include but is not limited to the following:

•Why is this celestial object interesting and worth exploring?

•A general description of the celestial object, should include some cool facts

•The objects distance from the earth

•How was it discovered

•At least one image of the object (if one exists)

•At least one link that a blogger could use to read more about your celestial object. This could be a website(s) or an article(s).

Article posted December 4, 2011 at 05:57 PM GMT0 • comment (2) • Reads 1821

A celestial object that I wanted to learn about is the planet Saturn. It is interesting to me because it is one of the few planets that have rings and it is the secnd largest planet. It is worth exploring becasue it has many cool features. All of the planets in the solar system have exciting features, but saturn stood out to me the most. Saturn is an oblate and visibly flattened when viewed from a telescope. Its equotorial diameter is 120,536 kilometers and its polar diameter is 108,728 kilometers. It is less dense of all the other planets and its graviy is 0.7. It is made of 75% hydrogen and 25% heium with traces of water, methane ammonia and "rock", like jupiter. Its interior is a rocky core, liquid meallic hydrogen layer and a molecular hydrogen layer. The interiior is hot at the core at 12000 kelvin. It orbits 1,429,400,000 kilometers from the sun, 9.54 astronomical unit. The rings is the most interesting to me. Saturn has two prominent rings and one faint ring can be seen from earth. They are very bright and very thin, 250,000 kilometers or more in diameter. The paricles of the rings are water ice, rocky particles, with ice coating. Like all planets, saturn has a magnetic field. It is the sixth largest planet from the sun and has 47 satellites. Its maximum disteance from earth is 1,658,854,9880 kilometers and its minimum is 1,195,772,020 kilometers. Saturn was first observered in 1610 by Galileo, with a telescope. In 1659, Christian Huygens correctly inferred its geometery of rings. Saturn was first visited by NASA's Pioneer II in 1979 and later by Voyager 1 and 2. Cassini (a joint NASA project) arrived on saturn on July 1, 2004 and orbited for at least 4 years. To learn more about saturn check out this link: http://nineplanets.org/saturn.html



Article posted December 4, 2011 at 05:57 PM GMT0 • comment (2) • Reads 1821



Article posted December 6, 2011 at 01:59 AM GMT0 • comment • Reads 896

If I could explore anything in space I would probably explore the planet of Mercury. I would want to explore this planet because it’s the closest planet to the sun and only one spacecraft has visited the planet. There is also some proof of water ice on the south and north poles inside deep craters. It is the second smallest planet in our solar system. Temperature on Mercury’s surface can reach 800 degrees Fahrenheit, but because there is no atmosphere, at nighttime temperatures can drop to -280 degrees Fahrenheit. Mercury's surface is like that of earth’s moon. There are many impact craters resulting from collisions with meteoroids and comets. It takes 88 days for Mercury to rotate around the sun and 59 days to rotate on it axis. Its 57 million miles away from the earth and has a diameter of 3.032.4 miles. Fun Fact: if you weigh 100 pounds on earth then you would weigh 38 pounds on Mercury! Galileo was the first to see Mercury through his telescope in the 17th century. 


http://www.solarviews.com/eng/mercury.htm



 

Article posted December 6, 2011 at 01:59 AM GMT0 • comment • Reads 896



Article posted December 4, 2011 at 07:55 PM GMT0 • comment • Reads 94

Gilese 581g is most definately a great planet to explore. Scientists have discovered that Gliese 581g may be the only other planet that is earth-like and can sustain life. Some cool facts about Gliese 581g is that the length of a year is about 37 Earth days. The gravity is about the same as it is on Earth. It is about 20 light years away from Earth, that is equivalent to about 118,000,000,000,000 miles. Another cool fact is that on Gliese 581g you would weigh 3 times as much as you do on Earth! The planet was discovered by a group of "planet hunters" from the University of California and they used an observatory in Hawaii to find it. It took 11 years of research and observations of the red dwarf star Gliese 581 to find Gliese 581g.



To Learn More go to:  http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1316538/Gliese-581g-mystery-Scientist-spotted-mysterious-pulse-light-direction-newEarth-planet-year.html

Article posted December 4, 2011 at 07:55 PM GMT0 • comment • Reads 94



Article posted December 7, 2011 at 12:55 AM GMT0 • comment • Reads 121

Do you know what would be the coolest thing? If we lived on Mars. How cool would that be? We could do crazy stunts, because of the less gravity and go on a scenic view to the largest canyon and the largest mountain in the solar system that we know of. But first we have to find if we could live there. Then find a way to get there. Then stay alive long enough so we can show studies. Its not an easy task. Mars itself is over 300 million miles far.

NASA is sending a Mars science lab. They are trying to find any organic compounds that might give a hint of life. A few organic compounds they hope to find are carbon and hydrogen. By finding certain substances, based on earth, it will tell us if mars had any life or can support life. If there are substances that kill life, then we need more work. But if there are organic compounds, then that might help us make a manned mission to Mars. That also might help make rovers that might be able to located water or proof of past water.

I am so excited that we are getting so close that we might find life or go to Mars to begin with.

Article posted December 7, 2011 at 12:55 AM GMT0 • comment • Reads 121



Article posted December 4, 2011 at 10:31 PM GMT0 • comment • Reads 202

Venus -This object is worth exploring because Venus is not a planet that we are relatively familiar with, and talk about everyday. There might be a new species of life there that no one could even imagine about. Next, I would like to explore its moons. -The farthest Venus ever gets from earth in its elliptical orbit is 261 million km. When Venus is closets to earth in its elliptical orbit, which is called opposition, the distance is 38 million km. -Venus is only slightly smaller than Earth (95% of Earth's diameter, 80% of Earth's mass) -Venus is the second planet from the Sun and the sixth largest -224.7 days- period of revolution -243 days- period of rotation at equator -12,104 km- equatorial diameter -0.82- mass relative to earth (1) - Venus shows phases when viewed with a telescope from the perspective of Earth -Venus has no moons at all! The reason for that is because Venus is rotating backwards from the other planets. Venus rotates counter clockwise 
 -The first spacecraft to visit Venus was Mariner 2 in 1962 
 -Venus’ atmosphere consists of mostly carbon dioxide -Venus has several layers of clouds many kilometers thick composed of sulfuric acid 
 -There are strong (350 kph) winds at the tops of the clouds -Venus is very dry, but may had large bodies of water like earth, the water boiled away -Venus is the brightest celestial object in the sky, after the sun and moon -No one actually discovered Venus itself, the bright object was just known to the human eye since prehistoric times. But, later on people came to know that Venus is a planet. First Copernicus made a model of the solar system, showing that Venus orbited the sun just like the earth. After that in 1610 Galileo Galilei saw Venus through his telescope, seeing that Venus is a planet that goes through phases. So from that observation, he concluded that Venus orbited the sun. That proved Copernicus’ theory. I enjoyed exploring Venus the great bright planet. Here's a website that you can keep on exploring Venus! http://nineplanets.org/venus.htm



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Article posted December 4, 2011 at 10:31 PM GMT0 • comment • Reads 202



Article posted December 5, 2011 at 09:55 PM GMT0 • comment • Reads 123





Supernovae




"Times New Roman"">Once the nuclear fusion in a star ends, all of its elements end up as iron. The reason that it doesn’t keep fusing elements is because iron doesn’t fuse. Once all of it is iron, it releases a huge amount of energy in what is called a supernova. The energy is released when the star blows of its outer layers. The remains of the core will be one of two things - a neutron star or a black hole. The closest possible supernova is 150 light years away and if it blows up, its radiation will most likely wipe us (Earth) out because a “safe” distance for something like this is 160-200 light years away.

Article posted December 5, 2011 at 09:55 PM GMT0 • comment • Reads 123



Article posted November 30, 2011 at 04:12 AM GMT0 • comment • Reads 84

If there is one thing that I could explore in space, it would be a Supermassive Black Hole. I chose this because these things are insane. They could rip apart a star (depending on the star size) in a matter of seconds! 



Basically, they are the largest type of Black hole that is known. Almost every galaxy that is known to man is said to contain a supermassive black hole in its center. For the Milky Way, our supermassive black hole is said to have a force of gravity that is so strong that the planets or stars that orbit the black hole travel at the speed of light! I've never really heard of something like this in my life before. 



This was disovered because we orbit around the sun which is the center of our solar system. Our solar system orbits the center of the galaxy which has to be something so strong and massive to have objects billions of miles away to orbit it. 



To find the distance of the nearest supermassive black hole from Earth, we would have to calculate the distance of Earth from the center of the galaxy. We are about 25,000 light years away from the center which is probably trillions and even more miles. 



http://news.discovery.com/space/did-dark-stars-spawn-supermassive-black-holes.html



The URL above is for a website from Discovery with more info about supermassive black holes.



Click below for a cool video (instead of a picture) of black/supermassive black holes 



http://youtu.be/leZdJmUF4lM



 



 

Article posted November 30, 2011 at 04:12 AM GMT0 • comment • Reads 84



Article posted November 29, 2011 at 01:00 AM GMT0 • comment (2) • Reads 98

The celstial object I chose was dark matter. I found this object to be extremely interesting because it is something that no one can see. I mean you know about planets, comets, and even other galaxies, but dark matter is a whole new idea to consider! There is a lot of different matter in the universe. However, it seems like there must be more matter moving around in outerspace. A type of matter that is perhaps invisible to the human eye. Many scientists believe that we only account for 10% of mass in the universe! The exsistence of dark matter has not been proven yet, but there is increasing evidence. Dark matter is said to be a part of the gravatational bind that holds the universe together and yes, even light. Now there is not an exact distance between dark matter and the earth, but there is a certain type of dark matter. It is called Massive Compact Halo Objects and it is made of ordinary matter. Since they are said to exist in planets, moons, and stars it may exist in our earth. This type of matter is only beliveved to make up some of  the dark matter in the universe. Another type of matter called Weakly Interactive Massive Particles is still a theory, but if prove could account for most of dark matter in the universe.





                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Artist rendering of dark matter                               



http://www.seasky.org/celestial-objects/dark-matter.html



 



    

Article posted November 29, 2011 at 01:00 AM GMT0 • comment (2) • Reads 98



Article posted December 6, 2011 at 05:42 PM GMT0 • comment • Reads 114

Jupiter, as you know is one of our planets in the solar system!! However, Jupiter is a very interesting planet to study about because of its cool facts that Jupiter holds. Jupiter is the largest planet and is the fifth planet closest to the sun. Jupiter also has a strong force of gravity that if you weighed hundred pounds on earth you would weigh two hundred and sixty four pounds in Jupiter. Jupiter also rotates the quickest out of all the other planets in the solar system. Jupiter is greatly known for its red spot in the middle. The red spot is actually a storm that has been going on for more than three hundred years. Jupiter is also 4.2 to 6.2 AU (in astronomical units) away from earth. Jupiter was also named after the king of the roman gods. However we are not positive of who discovered Jupiter first. Jupiter may be explained in more details at [LINK]

Article posted December 6, 2011 at 05:42 PM GMT0 • comment • Reads 114



Article posted December 7, 2011 at 11:48 PM GMT0 • comment • Reads 90

You can enter the text of your blog here!

Article posted December 7, 2011 at 11:48 PM GMT0 • comment • Reads 90



Article posted December 5, 2011 at 01:21 AM GMT0 • comment • Reads 188

I did my research on the star constellation of Orion.

I find this worth exploring because the story people have about how Orion was created has a lot to do with Greek Mythology. The story is said to be that Orion was the only man, the Greek maiden goddess Artemis ever felt attracted to. He was a hunter like Artemis and felt very proud of himself that he was the one to get Artemis to fall in love. However, Artemis’s twin brother, Apollo, didn’t approve of him because he felt Orion treated her like a prize not a lover. The story goes both ways here that either Apollo worked with the Evil Primal God Gaia sent a scorpion to kill Orion. Or that while Orion was fighting the scorpion he ran away because he couldn’t fight it and jumped into the ocean and Apollo knowing that Artemis will accept any challenge told her that as a bet to shot the tiny little creature (Orion) in the water in the head. Then when Artemis found out it was Orion she longed for him and begged Zeus to revive him, but he didn’t so Artemis recreated him in the heavens.

If you average all the main stars in the constellations distance you will get about 777 light years away.

Orion’s constellation was discovered by an ancient man in Egypt that unfortunately no one knows the name of currently.

A cool fact is in the movie transformers the constellation of orion’s belt was used in the scene shot in Egypt to show a connection between pyramids and in real life the connection is still very much true.



[LINK]

Article posted December 5, 2011 at 01:21 AM GMT0 • comment • Reads 188



Article posted November 30, 2011 at 11:01 PM GMT0 • comment • Reads 485

Uranus is definitely worth exploring! There are so many interesting facts about Uranus, and not everyone knows them all so it is VITAL that we research.



Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun in our solar system. The planet has twenty-seven revolving satellites and eleven rings around it. Seventeen hours is the amount of time for one rotation of its axis. It is four times larger in diameter compared to Earth. Its radius is the third largest and its mass is the fourth largest among the eight planets in our solar system. Hydrogen, helium, and methane make up Uranus's atmosphere. -353 degrees Farenheit or -214 degrees Celcius is its uniform temperature. For one revolution aroud the sun, it takes 30,685 days, or 84 Earth years.



The mean distance from the Sun is 1,783.98 million miles or 2,870 kilometers, making it twice as far from the Sun as Saturn, its neighboring planet. The distance from the Earth is 1,607,000,000 miles at the closest point.



This planet was named after the ancient Roman god of the sky, Uranus (Greek name-Ouranos), who was the father of Saturn (Greek name-Kronos) and grandfather of Jupiter (Greek name-Zeus), Neptune (Greek name-Poseidon), and Pluto (Greek name-Hades).



Sir William Herschel discovered Uranus on March 13, 1781. Uranus is the first planet to be discovered with a telescope. Herschel was observing the constellation Gemini when he realized that it was large and pale blue. When he started to take notes of the object's movements, and then concluded that he had found a new planet to the solar system. King George III rewarded Herschel and therefore, the planet, before having its name changed to Uranus, was called George's Star.



 



 



 



 



 



 To learn more, visit:  solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/profile.cfm



 by Annabel  ~



 



 

Article posted November 30, 2011 at 11:01 PM GMT0 • comment • Reads 485



Article posted December 5, 2011 at 04:48 AM GMT0 • comment • Reads 281

The sun is very interesting and is worth exploring because the sun gives the earth warmth and without the sun, the earth would be cold all the time. The sun gives off light and gives off vitamin D. People also depend on the sun to get tan over the summer.

Sun Facts: - The sun is a star at the center of our solar system

- Consists of hot plasma interwoven with magnetic fields - Diameter of 1,392,000 km (330,000 times bigger than earth's diameter)

- 3/4 of the sun's mass consists of hydrogen

- The sun is a main sequence star

- Sun is brighter than about 85% of all stars in the Milky Way

- The sun is currently traveling the Local Interstellar Cloud in the Local Bubble zone

- The Sun orbits the center of the Milky Way at a distance of approximately 24,000–26,000 light years from the galactic center

- Sunlight is Earth's primary source of energy

- The brightness of the sun can cause pain from looking at it with the naked eye

- The sun is 149.6 million kilometers away from the earth Nicolaus Copernicus discovered the sun



[LINK]



[LINK]

Article posted December 5, 2011 at 04:48 AM GMT0 • comment • Reads 281



Article posted November 30, 2011 at 09:39 PM GMT0 • comment • Reads 81

Space Exploration-

The thing I decided to write about is the planet Mars. I think this is worth finding out about because Mars is one of the planets in our solar system. It's interesting because it's the only planet that we can see in DETAIL from Earth.

Mars is the color reddish. The reason for this is because Mars is all rusty. There is so much iron in the soil, the air makes it turn red, such as rusty iron on Earth. Some facts is that Mars orbits the sun every 687 Earth days, which is close to 2 years for us. Mars outshines every planet besides Venus when at its brightest. Mars atmosphere is mostly carbon dioxide, making it hard for life to live. Also, in Winter, temperatures on Mars can get as low as -191 degrees Fahrenheit. Mars is about 54.6 million km away from Earth.

Mars was discovered before history was ever recorded. Early humans saw it from Earth as a red dot in the sky. Later, an astronomer named Tycho Brahe made accurate calculations about Mars eclipse. Galileo was the first person to ever see Mars through a telescop for astronomical purposes.

Here is a link to a cool video about an asteroid that flattened mars-[LINK] (beware the video is very long)



Article posted November 30, 2011 at 09:39 PM GMT0 • comment • Reads 81



Article posted December 1, 2011 at 07:24 PM GMT0 • comment • Reads 80

The celestial object that I am chosing to do is called Kepler-21b. Kepler-21b is a planet that is interesting because it is near or almost the same size as the Earth. Kepler-21b has a sun that is just a bit bigger than ours and is only 6 million kilometers(3.7 million miles) away from it. With them being that close to each other, Kepler-21b is a scorching 2960 degrees fahrenheit. While its mass is about 10 times the size of our planet, its radius is only 1.6 times the size of Earth's. It was discovered today (Wednesday 12-1-11) by the National Optical Observatory. Kelper-21b is also only about 352 light years away from Earth. I found this was very interesting because we usually find planets that are much bigger, but now there's a planet that is almost the same size as us. [LINK]

Article posted December 1, 2011 at 07:24 PM GMT0 • comment • Reads 80



Article posted December 2, 2011 at 12:40 AM GMT0 • comment • Reads 117

Antares is one of the biggest know stars and is a red supergiant in the Milky Way galaxy. The distance of Antares to Earth is about 520 light years. The name Antares means “rival of Mars,” the color of Antares is also similar to Mars. It is the 15th brightest star in the sky. It is a constellation in the sky that can help you find the Zodiac’s Scorpius.  It is within the Zodiac and so it is sometimes mistaken for a red planet. Antares is big enough to soon explode like a supernova.


In the star size comparison video, it is the 16th object shown:




Article:




 

Article posted December 2, 2011 at 12:40 AM GMT0 • comment • Reads 117



Article posted December 6, 2011 at 09:35 PM GMT0 • comment (1) • Reads 390

Shooting stars really capture my interest because I was always fascinated by the streaks of lights that I saw in movies. How are these caused and what are the source that these figures come from I thought in my head. If it is mentioned so many times in tv, movies and even the news, shouldn’t I know about these things. Well, I researched on these shooting stars and I am so happy with the results. What they really are is tiny bits of rock and dust, they aren’t even real stars. These steaks of light are caused by rocks and dust called meteoroids falling into earth’s atmosphere and burning up. It was discovered by different astronomers but the idea was finalized with the invention of the telescope. Shooting stars vary in distance because they are always moving but they are much closer than other celestial objects because they fall under the category of earth’s atmosphere.

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Article posted December 6, 2011 at 09:35 PM GMT0 • comment (1) • Reads 390



Article posted December 6, 2011 at 09:38 PM GMT0 • comment • Reads 101

You can enter the text of your blog here!

Article posted December 6, 2011 at 09:38 PM GMT0 • comment • Reads 101



Article posted January 15, 2012 at 10:42 PM GMT0 • comment • Reads 98

~PLUTO~



Originally thought of as a main planet, Pluto is now classified as a dwarf planet. This discovery was made in 2006 and we see that this planet has moved into the Kuiper Belt. This is a “shadowy disk-like zone beyond the orbit of Neptune that holds a trillion or more comets.” It now holds Pluto, which is the biggest object there. President Abraham Lincoln grew his beard because an eleven-year-old girl suggested it. Just like that, another eleven-year-old girl by the name of Venetia Burney of Oxford, England told her grandfather to name the planet after the Roman god of the underworld. Her grandfather proceeded to mention this to the Lowell observatory. It worked out because the name was also referred to Percival Lowell whose initials are the first two letters of Pluto. So since Pluto is so far away, we never really got many details about it. But we could point out obvious things as well. Being so far away from the sun, we can conclude that it has a highly eccentric orbit and is FREEZING COLD!!! (Minus 375 degrees Fahrenheit) We think that Pluto has a “rocky core surrounded by a mantle of water ice.” Coating its surface could be methane and nitrogen gases. Pluto proves to be a very interesting planet but sadly, one we can’t discover very much about. Hopefully new information will turn up so we can discover more!





[LINK]

[LINK]

[LINK]

Article posted January 15, 2012 at 10:42 PM GMT0 • comment • Reads 98



Article posted December 5, 2011 at 10:41 PM GMT0 • comment (3) • Reads 535



MARS



 



Mars is worth exploring because it has a slight possibility that it can support life and humans can live there on day. This is because Mars might have frozen water under its surface. There is a lot of effort for exploration on Mars and people are trying to find a way to go to Mars to try to make it suitable for human life. In my opinion, it would be great if life on Mars succeeded, but it will take a very long time and is pretty unlikely because of the money it takes to do everything and also the way of getting to Mars. Scientists believe that Mars was very similar to earth with oceans and rivers long before humans.



 



Mars is the fourth planet in our solar system. It has a reddish appearance. It has a thin atmosphere and is similar to Earth in some ways. It has two moons Phobos and Deimos. They are very small and irregularly shaped. Mars is mostly made up of red soil, and rock. It is a terrestrial planet. It is less dense than earth but it’s surface area is only a little less than Earth’s amount of dry land.  It has a lot of interesting terrain including a mountain/volcano called Olympus Mons. Olympus Mons rises 24 km or 78,000 feet above the surrounding plain. It’s base is more than 500km in diameter and it’s cliff/rim is 6km or 20,000 high. It takes Mars 24 hours and 39 minutes to rotate on its axis and 686.971 Earth days or 1.8808 Earth years to fully revolve around the sun.



 



Cool Facts:



1. Mars was named after the Roman God of war, Mars.



2. If humans were to come to Mars, it could be terraformed (the climate, surface, and properties of Mars would become habitable by humans and other life).  This is how it would look like!



 



3.  Mars is sometimes referred as the Red Planet.



4. The name of the month March comes from the planet Mars.



 



Mars distance from Earth varies. Both planets travel around elliptical orbits that are not very synchronized, so they are constantly getting closer together and farther apart.



 



How was it discovered: Mars is a lot like Venus, it is very bright and very easily seen in the night sky. We do not know who actually discovered Mars. Scientists most likely observed it and figured out it was a planet. However, Mars moons were discovered. In 1877, Asaph Hall spotted the two moons and named them.



 



 



Feel free to dork-out and read up about very interesting facts about Mars! Use this website: http://nineplanets.org/mars.html



Article posted December 5, 2011 at 10:41 PM GMT0 • comment (3) • Reads 535



Article posted December 6, 2011 at 04:06 AM GMT0 • comment • Reads 162

  A black hole is a region of space from which nothing, not even light, can escape. In happens when one or more stars instead of exploding, implode. They collapse into themselves and become so dense, and so heavy that their combined gravity pulls everything around it to itself. Even light gets pulled in that’s why it becomes like a black hole. Black holes are mysterious; we can’t really tell what’s inside of them. Our super telescopes detect them to be billions of light years away. That’s a very long distance when you consider a light year to be the distance that light can travel in a year’s time. The study of black holes helps scientists to learn more about how early galaxies were created. It teaches them the behavior of gravity on the objects around it and how a black hole could be making a difference in the way new galaxies and stars are shaped. Black holes are seen only because they are surrounded by stars and planets that are far enough from it that do not get pulled in but stay around therefore when looked at from far with a telescope, we can detect galaxies of light with a surprise black spot (hole) in the middle of it. So, the next time you come close to a black hole, be very careful because if you get closer than you should, you will get pulled and will never be seen again :-)



want to learn more? http://amazing-space.stsci.edu/resources/explorations/blackholes/teacher/sciencebackground.html

Article posted December 6, 2011 at 04:06 AM GMT0 • comment • Reads 162



Article posted December 6, 2011 at 12:27 AM GMT0 • comment (1) • Reads 89

For years, many scientists wondered what the center of our universe was. In December of 2008, scientists announced that there was supermassive black hole in the center of the universe. They made this conclusion because they observed that there was an immense gravitational pull and many stars were sucked into one point. This black hole is 30,000 light years away from our solar system.I think that this is an interesting topic to research because we can understand why things happen in the center of the galaxy like planets and stars disappearing or light bending.



If you want to continue reading about the black hole, you can go to :

[LINK]


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Article posted December 6, 2011 at 12:27 AM GMT0 • comment (1) • Reads 89



Article posted December 5, 2011 at 09:42 PM GMT0 • comment (1) • Reads 177

OGLE-TR-122b is the smallest main sequence star known. It has a radius of 167,000 kilometers which is only 20% larger than Jupiter. It is in the Carina constellation and has a seven day orbit period. It was discovered by the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment(OGLE) survey when they observed this star eclipse a larger star. It is about 3200 light years from the earth. 



 



http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005A%26A...433L..21P



 



Article posted December 5, 2011 at 09:42 PM GMT0 • comment (1) • Reads 177



Article posted December 5, 2011 at 12:55 AM GMT0 • comment (1) • Reads 77

 



To this date, VY Canis Majoris is the largest known star to us in the universe. Also, it has  a luminosity of 4.3×105 L (450,000 times brighter than the sun), making it one of the brightest stars too. Its radius is roughly 1,800 to 2,100 times larger than that of the sun. Even  with its massive size and extreme brightness, the surface temperature of it is only 3,000 K. Our sun’s surface temperature is 5,800 K, so VY Canis Majoris is cooler than our Sun. Because of this temperature (using the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram), VY Canis Majoris will appear to be red.


Being 3,063,500,000,000m (3 billion km), this red hypergiant  is 2,000 times the size of the sun. It is located in the constellation Canis Major. The reason this celestial body is so worth researching and exploring is its size: the largest known star in the universe. If it were to replace our sun in this solar system, it would stretch as far as to Saturn! This means that to look at the size of this star, you can look at the orbit of Saturn around the sun to see its size, and some scientists say it might even extend past that. To equal the volume of VY Canis Majoris with Earths, you would need 7×1015 Earths! The distance between VY Canis Majoris from Earth is 4,900 light years In the next 100,000 years, it is expected to blow up into a hypernova, causing damage to any local galaxies. However, it is too far from Earth to have any significant impact on us.  It was discovered (first scene) on March 7, 1801 by Jerome Lalande. 19th century studies have shown us that since 1850 the star has been fading.  


More information can be found on:






 


Article posted December 5, 2011 at 12:55 AM GMT0 • comment (1) • Reads 77



Article posted December 6, 2011 at 03:02 AM GMT0 • comment • Reads 87

Basic Information-



Mass: 300 to 400 billion solar mass (approximately the mass as the Milky Way Galaxy, if not less)

Size: approximately 228,000 light years in length of the disk, and 100,000 light years high (larger than the Milky Way Galaxy)

Visual Magnitude: 3.4

Other Names: Messier 31 (M31), NBC 224, The Little Cloud, The Great Nebula





The Andromeda Galaxy is the nearest spiral galaxy to the Milky Way (2.5~2.9 million light years away). It is also said to be the largest of the 30 galaxies in the Local Group, containing up to a trillion stars. It can be seen with the naked eye from planet Earth.

It was first found by Abd Al Rahman Al Sufi, a Persian astronomer, in A.D. 964. He described the Andromeda as “The Little Cloud.

The Andromeda Galaxy was named after the mythical princess Andromeda, after being spotted in the Andromeda Constellation.

Studies say that the Andromeda Galaxy may have two nuclei, and this may be due to another galaxy that was cannibalized a long time ago, or it may be that there is a single core partly obscured by dust.

What I find interesting is that the Andromeda Galaxy is predicted to collide with the Milky Way Galaxy in approximately 4.5 billion years from now- but it most likely will not effect the Earth in any way, we will be long gone by then, and the human species itself may be extinct as well.



<[LINK]>

Article posted December 6, 2011 at 03:02 AM GMT0 • comment • Reads 87



Article posted December 6, 2011 at 12:04 AM GMT0 • comment (2) • Reads 116



Hey everyone! So today I would like to talk to you bloggers out there about…wait for it…..THE BOOMERANG NEBULA!! A nebula in general is a nursery for stars when they are first born. The Boomerang Nebula is located about 5,000 light-years from Earth, in the direction of a southern constellation Centaurus. Over the last 1,500 years, nearly one and a half times of the mass of our Sun has been lost by the central star of the Boomerang Nebula (greedy little star in the middle there…)! This ejection process is called bipolar outflow.



The Boomerang Nebula is one of the coldest places in the universe! Radio measurements made in 1995 show the deep interior of the nebula to have a temperature of only one degree Kelvin above absolute zero. This makes the inner regions of the Boomerang Nebula one of the coldest known places in the universe. Also, the Boomerang Nebula got its name from its shape, which is a boomerang of course!



But how was this celestial object found? A telescope known as the Hubble Telescope had “caught” the Boomerang Nebula, with images taken with the Advanced Camera. Here are some really cool pictures of this nebula!



(To read more about this nebula, and others as well, go to this link!)



 http://www.nightskynation.com/objects/nebulae/Boomerang-Nebula



Article posted December 6, 2011 at 12:04 AM GMT0 • comment (2) • Reads 116



Article posted December 6, 2011 at 03:22 AM GMT0 • comment (3) • Reads 77



       Halley's Comet is definitely interesting because of when it's visible from Earth. Halley's orbit around the Sun takes typically 75-76 years. It's interesting because you never know when you will see it. You may have some idea, but never exactly what time. It was the first comet to be seen as periodic. This is because as it orbits around the Sun, the rays from the Sun boil off some of the comet's gasses, changing its speed. Halley's Comet looks like a comet, with a nucleus in the middle at the front as it shoots across the sky. It was last seen in 1986, and it will most likely be seen again in 2062. Because its movement is different than that of the Earth's, there is no consistant distance from the Earth to the comet. It was discovered by a man named Edmond Halley. He predicted in 1705 that you would be able to see the comet over London in 1682. 



       Halley's Comet is definitely one of the most interesting celestial bodies out there for its movement. 



To read more, go to: http://nineplanets.org/halley.html

Article posted December 6, 2011 at 03:22 AM GMT0 • comment (3) • Reads 77



Article posted December 5, 2011 at 03:15 AM GMT0 • comment (2) • Reads 167

PLUTO - the dwarf planet in our solar system





 



Pluto is a celestial body, a planet, which usually orbits beyond Neptune. Formerly classified as a planet, Pluto's much smaller size compared to the other planets has moved it into a "dwarf planet" category. 



 



Pluto was discovered in 1930 by accident. An error in calculations predicted a planet beyond Neptune, based on the motions of itself and Uranus. Clyde W. Tombaugh surveyed the sky, and despite the error, discovered pluto. 








 



Pluto is worth exploring because its great distance from Earth has inevitably caused little to be known about this dwarf plant orbiting beyond Neptune. Pluto is interesting because many of the known characteristics and facts about Pluto differ from those of most of the other planets in our solar system. 








Pluto was named after the god of the underworld in Roman mythology, Hades in Greek mythology. Pluto is smaller than seven of the moons in the solar system(our Moon, Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, Titan and Triton) A spacecraft called "New Horizons" was launched in January of 2006 and is expected to reach pluto in 2015, if all goes well. Pluto orbits in the opposite direction of most of the other planets. Charon, one of Pluto's moons, was not discovered until 1978. Depending on where pluto is from it's orbit, Pluto can range between 28 and 50 astronomical units from Earth. Another interesting fact about Pluto's orbit would be that sometimes Pluto is closer to the sun than Neptune, resulting in it's greatly varying distance from Earth. 



 













Want to learn more? Check out these links!







http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/profile.cfm?Object=Pluto



http://www.universetoday.com/13891/distance-to-pluto/



http://nineplanets.org/pluto.html





 



 



 



 

Article posted December 5, 2011 at 03:15 AM GMT0 • comment (2) • Reads 167



Article posted December 4, 2011 at 03:04 AM GMT0 • comment • Reads 235

The Andomeda galaxy is a galaxy that is very interesting because it is going to crash into our galaxy, the Milky Way galaxy, in 2.5 billion years. When these two galaxies collide, the galaxies will form a huge elliptical galaxy. Andromeda is also known as Messier 31. Also Andromeda is a spiral galaxy just like the Milky Way. To see most galaxies you need a telescope, but Andromeda is visible to the human eye without any technology. Andromeda is 2.5 million light years away from the Sun. Andromeda was discovered by Persian astronomers thousands of years ago, bus it was classified by Charles Messier in 1764, therefore it was classified as Messier 31 after him.





To get more information you can visit:



http://www.universetoday.com/30289/andromeda-galaxy/



 

Article posted December 4, 2011 at 03:04 AM GMT0 • comment • Reads 235



Article posted December 1, 2011 at 10:04 PM GMT0 • comment • Reads 286

Venus is easy to see with the unaided eye. In fact, it’s the brightest object in the night sky after the Moon.Humans have been on Earth for 200,000 years, so maybe that’s how long we’ve known about the planet. Ancient astronomers didn’t know what Venus was. They knew it was an object in the sky. But when Copernicus developed his model of the Solar System, he placed the Sun at the center, and the planets orbiting it. That was when Venus and Earth were recognized as planets. Venus was named after the Roman goddess Venus, who is the goddess of love. Venus's counterpart from the Greeks was named Aphrodite. Venus is considered to be Earth's twin sister because of their similar shape and size. Venus rotates very slowly. Venus orbits closer to the Sun than Earth, and so it takes less time to orbit the Sun. In fact, Venus takes only 224.7 days to orbit the Sun. Compare this with the Earth, which takes 365.25 days to orbit the Sun. This means that a year on Venus lasts only 62% the length of a year on Earth. Even stranger, Venus rotates backwards compared to all the other planets in the Solar System. If you could fly up above the Solar System and then look down at the planets, all of them are turning in a counter-clockwise direction, except Venus. Venus doesn't have any moons. Venus has phases though. Venus has few craters and has a spacecraft right now called the Venus Express. It takes 243.69 days for Venus to complete one rotation. Venus is a cool planet even though it is very hot. HaHa! It was a joke. Venus has water on it, so maybe people can live on Venus one day. If the Earth gets overpopulated, people can try living on Mars and Venus. If it doesn't work out, people would need to stop having kids. Venus is such a cool planet!



--Joshua Somrah

Article posted December 1, 2011 at 10:04 PM GMT0 • comment • Reads 286



Article posted December 5, 2011 at 11:46 PM GMT0 • comment (1) • Reads 87

NEPTUNE



Facts about Neptune:



ü Is the eighth and farthest planet from the Sun in the Solar System



ü Named after the Roman God of Sea



ü It is the fourth largest planet by diameter and third largest by mass



ü On an average, Neptune orbits the Sun and a distance of 30.1 AU



ü Discovered on September 23, 1846



ü Neptune is a gas giant however, it is primarily composed of hydrogen and helium



ü The interior of Neptune is composed of ice and rocks



ü Neptune’s atmosphere is notable for its active and visible weather patterns



vNeptune’s mass is 17 times that of the Earth but it is only 1/19th that of Jupiter’s (OMG!)



ü Neptune is approximately 4.5 km away from the Earth











How Was Neptune Discovered?



Neptune was discovered as the result of observed irregularities in the motion of Uranus and the first planet to be discovered on the basis of theoretical calculations.



By: J. C. Adams, U. J. Leverrier, and J. C. Galle in 1846







Why is Neptune worth it?



Neptune is my favorite planet in the Solar System, besides the Earth, because it is BLUE! It is worth exploring because there is a lot to learn from reading about it. It has some unique characteristics compared to the other four gas giants and it is also similar to those planets as well.







Link: [LINK]

Article posted December 5, 2011 at 11:46 PM GMT0 • comment (1) • Reads 87



Article posted December 5, 2011 at 11:47 PM GMT0 • comment • Reads 177

NEPTUNE



 



Facts about Neptune:



ü Description: http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRNQbGiQAXH1jdWrASOaZlDvlNW5pGt5SkkX93xwtpZ0Z1CShs-LQIs the eighth and farthest planet from the Sun in the Solar System



ü Named after the Roman God of Sea



ü It is the fourth largest planet by diameter and third largest by mass



ü On an average, Neptune orbits the Sun and a distance of 30.1 AU



ü Discovered on September 23, 1846



ü Neptune is a gas giant however, it is primarily composed of hydrogen and helium



ü The interior of Neptune is composed of ice and rocks



ü Neptune’s atmosphere is notable for its active and visible weather patterns



vNeptune’s mass is 17 times that of the Earth but it is only 1/19th that of Jupiter’s (OMG!)



ü Neptune is approximately 4.5 km away from the Earth



 



 



Description: http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSJSaSkW5LPDELlW3CCPmcUGianUiJUIgyrNal4xtahvfQiNYtXcQHow Was Neptune Discovered?



Neptune was discovered as the result of observed irregularities in the motion of Uranus and the first planet to be discovered on the basis of theoretical calculations.



By: J. C. Adams, U. J. Leverrier, and J. C. Galle in 1846



 



Why is Neptune worth it?



Neptune is my favorite planet in the Solar System, besides the Earth, because it is BLUE! It is worth exploring because there is a lot to learn from reading about it. It has some unique characteristics compared to the other four gas giants and it is also similar to those planets as well.



 



Link: http://www.brainpop.com/science/space/neptune/



 

Article posted December 5, 2011 at 11:47 PM GMT0 • comment • Reads 177



Article posted December 5, 2011 at 09:55 PM GMT0 • comment • Reads 69

Halley's comet was an interesting celestial object to me because it always pops into my mind whenever I think of any comet. Did you know that Halley's comet goes into our inner solar system about every 75-76 years? It is also made up of volatile ices like ammonia, water, carbon dioxide and dust. Although, most of it is really dust and only a small part of the comet is actually icy. The closest that Halley's Comet has ever been to us has been .42 astronomical units. Halley's Comet has been with us for more than 2,000 years and the way it has been discovered was actually a prediction made by Edmond Halley that the comet would come back in 1758.   I used wikipedia.org and http://space.about.com/od/comets/a/halleyscomet.htm

Article posted December 5, 2011 at 09:55 PM GMT0 • comment • Reads 69



About the Blogger

Hello fellow bloggers my name is Manny D and I sure am excited for Earth Science this year. My favorite subjects would have to be science and social studies. I am also an avid soccer and hockey player. Some of my hobbies include golf, fishing,and farming. I am also Portuguese. Being that I am very proud of my heritage you will probaly be hearing updates about what is going on in Portugal. Eighth grade I'm sure will be a fun year for me and all of my classmates. I hope it is for you to. Update will be made regularly and feel free to visit again.

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