History of the Axel Jump
-Axel Paulsen was the first skater to perform the jump named after him, in 1882. Curiously, he performed this feat wearing speed skates rather than figure skates.
-In the early years of skating, jumping was the exclusive domain of men. Sonja Henie is generally acknowledged as the first female skater to perform an Axel jump. Today, however, her Axel technique (preserved in her many films) would be considered very poor, since her jumps were badly pre-rotated without a "step up", giving them more the character of a jumped spin.
-Dick Button was the first skater credited with a double Axel jump in competition. He performed this at the 1948 Winter Olympics, although video footage of the jump shows that it may have been underrotated. Button's coach Gus Lussi was responsible for developing the modern Axel jump technique. In 1953, Carol Heiss was the first woman to perform a double Axel.
-Canadian skater Vern Taylor was the first to land a triple Axel in competition at the 1978 World Figure Skating Championships. It has since become a standard jump for male competitors, but it is rare for female skaters to successfully land them, or even to attempt them. The first woman to land the jump in competition was Midori Ito, who first performed it at the 1988 NHK Trophy. Since then four other women (Tonya Harding, Ludmila Nelidina, Yukari Nakano and Mao Asada) have succeeded in completing the jump in international competition, while another woman, Kimmie Meissner, first completed the jump at the 2005 U.S. Figure Skating Championships.
-American pair skaters Rena Inoue and John Baldwin, Jr. became the first pair to perform a throw triple Axel in competition at the 2006 U.S. Figure Skating Championships, and then made Olympic and ISU history landing it again at the 2006 Winter Olympics.
-Brian Orser of Canada was the first skater to put two triple axel jumps in the same program, and the first to accomplish this at the World level at the 1987 World Figure Skating Championships; since he also landed one in the short program, he additionally was the first skater to land three triple axel jumps in the same competition. Mao Asada became the first woman to duplicate this feat at the 2010 Winter Olympics.
History of the Lutz Jump
-In the "old days" of skating, some skaters carried the idea of the Lutz's counterrotated entry to an extreme by doing this jump in the opposite direction than their other jumps. For example, Sonja Henie did clockwise Lutz jumps and the remainder of her jumps and spins in a counterclockwise direction. This practice disappeared with the development of multi-rotation jumps.
-Today the Lutz is often done in double or triple versions. Donald Jackson of Canada was the first skater to execute a triple Lutz jump in competition, at the 1962 World Figure Skating Championships; Denise Biellmann is credited as the first woman to do so, in 1978. No skater has yet landed a clean quadruple Lutz jump in competition.
History of the Flip Jump
-The origins of the flip jump are obscure. The invention has been attributed to Bruce Mapes who also invented the similar toe loop, but this claim is disputable. Some sources claim that Jackson Haines was the first skater to successfully execute the flip jump. It was certainly being commonly performed by the 1930's. A few male skaters, including Terry Kubicka, were landing triple flips in competition by the mid-1970's. Katarina Witt was one of two female skaters to land a triple flip for the first time at the 1981 European Championships.
-No skater has yet successfully landed a quadruple flip in competition.
History of the Loop Jump
-The loop can also be done as a double or triple, with two or three rotations, respectively. Dick Button performed the first triple loop jump at the 1952 Winter Olympics. The first female skater known to be able to perform a triple loop was Gaby Seyfert in 1968.
-Since the loop takes off the edge that is used as the landing edge for most jumps, it is often seen as the second element of a jump combination. In this case, it is necessary for the skater to keep the free leg (the left leg for a counterclockwise rotator) and the same shoulder forward on the landing of the preceding jump, instead of bringing it backward in the normal check-out or for a toe loop jump. The timing for loop-based combinations is thus much quicker than toe-loop-based combinations.
-Eric Millot of France was the first skater to perform a triple loop/triple loop combination, in 1996. In the years since, doing triple loops in combination has become considered somewhat hazardous, since a number of skaters including 1998 Olympic champion Tara Lipinski have suffered serious hip injuries from practicing them.
-No skater has yet successfully performed a quadruple loop in competition.
History of the Salchow Jump
-Ulrich Salchow invented the jump that bears his name in 1909. Theresa Weld was the first female skater to perform it, at the 1920 Summer Olympics; she was reprimanded for attempting anything so "unladylike", but that did not stop other female skaters from performing jumps.
-Double Salchows were first performed by Gillis Grafström for men in 1920s, and Cecilia Colledge for women in the late 1930's.
-The first triple Salchow was landed by Ronnie Robertson at the 1955 World Figure Skating Championships. The first by a woman was by Petra Burka at the 1962 Canadian Championships; the latter was also the first triple jump of any kind landed by a woman.
-Timothy Goebel is recognized to have landed the first quadruple Salchow at the 1998 Junior Series Final. Goebel's jump, however, used the aforementioned controversial two-footed Salchow technique. The first successful quadruple Salchow in competition with an indisputably clean takeoff was probably that by Li Chengjiang at the 2001 ISU Four Continents Championships. The first (and, so far, only) female skater to have landed a quadruple Salchow in competition was Miki Ando at the 2002 Junior Grand Prix Final.
-The first throw quadruple Salchow pair element in international competition was performed on November 17, 2007 by Tiffany Vise and Derek Trent of the United States at the 2007 Trophée Eric Bompard competition.
History of the Toe loop Jump
-The toe loop was invented in the 1920's by Bruce Mapes, an American professional show skater.
-Toe loops can be done as singles (one revolution is completed in the air), doubles, triples, and even quadruples. Thomas Litz was the first skater to land a triple toe loop, which he accomplished at the 1964 World Figure Skating Championships; Grzegorz Filipowski of Poland was the first skater to perform a triple-triple toe loop combination in competition - 1980; Kurt Browning was the first to land a quadruple toe loop, which he accomplished at the 1988 World Championships. Today, many elite-level male skaters perform quadruple toe loops as a regular part of their repertoire, but as of yet, no female skater has been credited with landing one successfully in competition.