a) Based on The Hobbit, I think that Tolkien's attitude towards nationalism is positive and that he believes that it should be done. This is because he portrays Bilbo as very loyal and wanting to be helpful in his group with the dwarves (like his country). Bilbo also believes in what is right so that's why he also gave up the Arkenstone to the other side because that would be the noble thing to do. He remains loyal to his friends even when they wrong him and although he kind of betrayed Thorin by given away the stone, it was for goodness, and Thorin wasn't being reasonable with the treasure anyway. Bilbo just wanted to help a friend in need. In addition, the battle in the end of the book is very gory and many lives were lost, so I think that Tolkein wanted to show us how a little misunderstanding can end up starting a huge fight and that war, no matter what, isn't the solution to problems. I think that after Tolkein's experiences, he then realizes that war is devastating and overall scary so he puts this, whether he knows it or not, into his writing. Lives are lost and lots of sorrow comes along with it. Violence doesn't solve the problems fairly or reasonablely. His description of the battle makes the statement he feels about war in general to show us readers.