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teacher: Mrs. B - Grade 5 (2010-2011)

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Title: 5B - Biography (11/30/10)

Article posted December 2, 2010 at 07:34 PM GMT0 • comment • Reads 470



It was a stormy night in February 15 of the year 1564 when I was born, in Pisa Italy. I was one of six children of Vincenzo Galilei. My full name is Galileo di Vincenzo Bonaiuti de' Galilei, At the age of 8, my family moved to Florence, but I was left with Jacopo Borghini for two years. I then was educated at Camaldolese Monasteryat Vallombros.


I had a medical degree at the University of Pisa at my father's urging but I did not complete this degree, but instead I studied mathematics. In 1589, I was appointed to the chair of mathematics in Pisa. In the year 1591 my father died. In 1592, I moved to the University of Padua, teaching geometry, mechanics, and astronomy until 1610. During this period I made significant discoveries in both pure fundamental science as well as practical applied science (for example, strength of materials and improvement of the telescope). My multiple interests included the astronomy. Based only on uncertain descriptions of the first practical telescope, invented by Hans Lippersheyin the Netherlands in 1608.in the following year, I made a telescope with about 3x magnification. I later made improved versions with up to about 30x magnification. With a my telescope the observer could see magnified, upright images on the earth, it was what is commonly known as spyglass. I could also use it to observe the sky for a time I was one of those who could construct telescopes good enough for that purpose. I made original contributions to the science of motion through an innovative combination of experiment and mathematics. More typical of science at the time were the qualitative studies of William Gilbert, on magnetism and electricity. My father, Vincenzo Galilei, a lutenist and music theorist had performed experiments establishing perhaps the oldest known non-linear relation in physics: for a stretched string, the pitch varies as the square root of the tension. These observations lay within the framework of the Pythagorean tradition of music, well-known to instrument makers, which included the fact that subdividing a string by a whole number produces a harmonious scale.


Although, a limited amount of mathematics had long related music and physical science, and when I was young could see my own father's observations expand on that tradition. I also discovered that all planets are round including earth and that earth wasn’t flat. My theoretical and experimental work on the motions of bodies, along with the largely independent work of Kepler and René Descartes, was a precursor of the classical mechanics developed by Sir Isaac Newton. My mathematical methods were the standard ones of the day. The analysis and proofs relied heavily on the Eudoxian theory of proportion, as set forth in the fifth book of Euclid's Elements .My early works describing scientific instruments include the 1586 tract entitled “The Little Balance “(La Billancetta) describing an accurate balance to weigh objects in air or water and the 1606 printed manual Le Operazioni del Compasso Geometrico et Militare on the operation of a geometrical and military compass. In the beginning of January 1642 I felt very ill and passing away at the age of 77 and I wished to be buried next to my fathers and other ancestors in Basilica of Santa Croce.





Article posted December 2, 2010 at 07:34 PM GMT0 • comment • Reads 470

Article posted November 30, 2010 at 01:17 PM GMT0 • comment • Reads 182

Childhood, Schools, Universities, and Degrees

My name is Louis Pasteur. I was born on December the 27th, 1882 in Dole, Eastern France. When I was a child, I moved with my family to Arbois where I attended school. My early interest was art. At the age of 16, I was thinking about becoming a full-time artist, but I did not pursue this dream. In 1839 I received a Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science degrees from the Royal College at Besancon. In 1845, I received a Master of Science and in 1847 I received my Doctor of Science. Both degrees where from Ecole Normal Superieure. I was never an outstanding student and I was always marked ‘mediocre’.

Research & Family

In 1848 my work on crystals was the beginning of stereochemistry, the study of the arrangement of various elements in a substance and how this arrangement affects the substance’s chemical behavior. One year later I got married to Marie Laurent and we had five children. Two of my daughters died because of typhoid fever and another did not survive to adulthood. I was deeply affected by their deaths and this is what led me to the research of human diseases.

Discovering Germ Theory of Disease

In 1854 I had a keen interest in the chemistry of fermentation, the way sugar from juices turns into alcohol. I was made fun of by great scientists but this all stopped when I proved that microbes play a vital part in chemical changes. At that point I found the science of microbiology which in turn paved the way to the germ theory of disease.

Developing Pasteurization

In 1863, I was asked by Napoleon III to help the French wine makers. They were losing money, because after fermentation, the wines kept turning sour. I discovered that contaminating microbes in the wine caused this souring and they could be destroyed by heat. This is when I developed pasteurization (the process was named after me). My work on fermentation and pasteurization had enormous benefits to the food and drink industries.

The Stroke and Spontaneous Generation

In 1864, I was concerned with the notion of spontaneous generation, which maintains that life could appear from nonliving matter. My experiments proved that “clean air” contained floating microbes. In 1868, at the age of 45, I suffered a stroke that paralyzed the left side of my body. However, this did not stop me from continuing my work.


In 1876, I stopped the Anthrax curse from spreading. In my days, Anthrax affected cattle and the people who worked closely with these animals. I suggested that the spread of Anthrax could be reduced by burning the bodies of the contaminated animals rather than leaving their bodies to rot. I proved that Anthrax bacteria stayed in the soil and was further spread by earthworms and windblown dust for many years.

Immunizations, Chicken Cholera, Rabies and Death

In 1880, I did experiments on chicken cholera. This led to process of vaccination and the lifesaving immunizations of today. The process of immunization you are given a vaccine of weakened germs. You can only suffer very slightly, if at all from the disease. In the meantime your body reacts as though the germs are normal and develops ways of killing these germs. The next time the germs appear they are automatically inactivated, and you are unlikely to catch the disease. This is called immunity. In 1882 I tried to find the microbe which I thought was the cause of rabies, but I could not see it under a microscope. Soon I discovered that the rabies ‘agent’ was also in a victim’s brain and nerves and that it could be weakened by drying the nerve tissue. Three years later, after trying the vaccine on some rabid dogs, I tried it on a nine year old boy and it was successful. I died on September the 28th 1895. My funeral was held at the Palace of Versailles.

Article posted November 30, 2010 at 01:17 PM GMT0 • comment • Reads 182

Article posted February 17, 2011 at 07:51 PM GMT0 • comment • Reads 113

Hi my name is Isaac Newton and I was born on Christmas on December 25, 1642 at Woolsthrope manor, Lincolnshire. My father died just before I was born, it was a sad time. He died from illness.

I was also born in the same year that the great Italian scientist Galileo Galilei died. I would one day grow up to be one of the greatest scientists ever born.

Anyway Woolsthrope was a very small village. In1643 Lincolnshire fell into the hands of the parliamentary army. The first few years of my life were peaceful enough, although the civil war was tragic.

When I was three years old, my mother decided to marry again and the person she married was already 63 years old and didn’t want a kid in his life, so I was left behind in Woolsthrope Manor and looked after by my grandmother Margery Ayscough. I felt abandoned and desperately lonely. I had never known my father, and now my mother had left me. I was so filled with rage that I had even threatened to burn down my mother and my stepfather’s house on their head.

I went to Trinity College, Cambridge. I was in the lowest group because my mother didn’t want to pay my fees. I was elected many times for many things. On October 2, 1667 I was elected a junior fellow of Trinity College. Also became a senior fellow on March 16, 1668.In February 1668, I started working on a new telescope design I thought of. In 1669 I got elected for lucasian professor of mathematics. From 1670 to 1672 I lectured on optics, and I investigated the refraction of light. I also showed that colored light does not change its properties by separating out a colored beam a shining it on different objects. In 1675 I took up the position of being lucasian professor of mathematics.

In 1680 I started to observe comets in the night sky. In January 1684 I exchanged ideas about gravity and planetary motion with my college’s Halley, Hooke, and Wren. My aim was to describe universal laws of motion which underpin the forces of nature. The first law of motion says that if an object that is moving will stay the same until something pushes it. The second law of motion says that the acceleration of an object depends on two things the objects mass and the force acting upon it. So the more force the more acceleration, but the more mass the less acceleration. The third law of motion says that for every action there is an equal opposite reaction. In December 10, 1701 I resigned as lucasian professor of mathematics at Cambridge. In February 1704 I published the first edition on optics.

Finally on March 20, 1727 I died at my home in Kensington, London and on April 4 there was a state funeral for me that took place in Westminster Abbey, London. That was the end of me.

Article posted February 17, 2011 at 07:51 PM GMT0 • comment • Reads 113

Article posted February 17, 2011 at 10:00 AM GMT0 • comment • Reads 78


Hi my name is Cassius Marcellus Clay Jr. I was named after my father. I was born on January 17th 1942.I warned myself to be the greatest boxer of all time. I was really confident of myself I wasn’t scared of anybody, I was brave. I believed in me and kept bragging how strong I am. My motto was always “Float like a butterfly sting like a bee, you can’t hit what you can’t see.

One day was an amazing day for me I had a chance to be the Champ, but I had to beat “Sonny Liston”, everybody thought I would never survive with this champion but I did, I thought that Liston was just a big ugly bear. I didn’t care what they thought because I knew what was going to happen from the beginning. By the end of round six the bell rang Ding…. Ding….Ding. I won I was the Champ!!!

After a couple of days I surprised the world again my real religion was Christianity but I changed to Islam. After that I shocked them for a second time I have decided that I was going to change my name to Muhammad Ali.

When I would walk on a sidewalk in pride sometimes people didn’t respect me only because I was an African American. In 1967 the American army informed me that I must fight with them in a war. I didn’t accept going, so I was sent to jail. Everybody hated me at that time they called me a Traitor a Coward an Ingrate and a Chump. Hitting people was one thing but killing people was just wrong. Life was so boring for me those years going from one courtroom to another, I was fighting for my freedom I hated this place more than anything. In three years I was released from prison. I reentered the Kingdom of Boxing, and I said again “I am the Greatest”.

I had a very good chance again to regain my Championship, I had to beat the mighty George Foreman. George Foreman kept hitting and punching me till round eight, then I woke up from my trick and I knocked George Foreman on to the floor. Once again I was the Champion of the World!!!

I have always been wishing and dreaming of being crowned King in Africa, not a real King but to be like one in everybody’s minds.

In 1972 I had my own training camp in Deer Lake, Pennsylvania. He taught new friends, old friends, and total strangers I really didn’t care who came. Whoever were big fans of him he would talk to them and give them his autograph. I loved everyone, and when groups of children came to my camp I used to hug and kiss every one of them. I respected anybody that came. I always tried to keep them enjoying me with jokes, wacky faces, poems, rhymes, magic tricks, and raps. I’ve always loved to make people laugh. Wherever I went my presence made people feel special as if they were champ too.

I lost my Champion Ship and I won it several times.

Since that day my dream came true I was crowned as Boxing King of Africa!!!

Article posted February 17, 2011 at 10:00 AM GMT0 • comment • Reads 78

Article posted November 30, 2010 at 01:22 PM GMT0 • comment • Reads 103

Pele's Biography

"Edson Arantes do Nascimento" my name, I was born on October 23rd 1940 in Tres Coracoes Bauru, Brazil. I am the son of a minor league soccer player which ended his career on a tragic injury on his knee. I was born on an extremely poor neighborhood where the only decent activity to entertain the kids was soccer/football with a half shoelace half carton ball. My father "Dondinho" and I picked the name "Pele", though we don’t know how or why we chose the name. I was trained by my father and soon the reply of why I worked so hard was there. I had my first team on my hometown in Bauru it was called Ameriquinha which means (Little America). It was created by me and my friends. Soon my neighborhood decided sponsor lots of soccer tournaments and by that time I was considered the best of my team. At the age of 15 my mentor or let's say advisor "Waldemar de Brito", brought me to Sao Paulo to try out for the major league teams. I was quickly rejected because of my conditions and age. De Brito then took me to Santos where I earned a spot on the team. There I gained about 60 thousand cruzeiros (about 60$) per month to play for Santos. I made my starting point on my first match against Cerro where the score was 1 x 1 and I scored 1.After months I was the first and most famous soccer legend with Santos, I was invincible. Just ten months after signing professionally I was called up to the national team of Brazil. After the world cup in 62 I was called from many wealthy European clubs like: Real Madrid, Manchester United, and Juventos tried to sign a contract with me, but the government of Brazil did not allow me because I was considered as a national treasure. After the 72nd season (my 17th with Santos) I retired from Brazilian football (1974). Two years later I decided to sign with the New York Cosmos. My last career match was played in the Cosmos stadium between my two life teams Santos X Cosmos. Pele decided to play one half for Santos one half for the Cosmos but the New York Cosmos won the match by 2 X 1.


Article posted November 30, 2010 at 01:22 PM GMT0 • comment • Reads 103

Article posted March 30, 2011 at 05:55 PM GMT0 • comment • Reads 213

Hi my name is Jane Goodall. Iwas born on April 3, 1934, in London, England, into a middle-class British family. My father, Mortimer Herbert Morris-Goodall, was an engineer. My mother, Vanna (Joseph) Morris-Goodall, was a successful novelist. When I was about two years old her mother gave her a stuffed toy chimpanzee, which I still possess to this day. I was a good student, but had more interest in being outdoors and learning about animals. Once I spent five hours in a hen-house so she could see how a hen lays an egg. I loved animals so much that by the time she was ten or eleven she dreamed of living with animals in Africa. My mother encouraged me to realize my dream, which eventually became a reality.

When I was eighteen I completed secondary school and began working. I worked as a secretary, as an assistant editor in a film studio, and as a waitress, trying to save enough money to make my first trip to Africa.


I finally went to Africa when I was twenty-three years old. In 1957 I sailed to Mombassa on the east African coast, where I met anthropologist Louis Leakey (1903–1972), who would become my mentor, or teacher. In Africa, Leakey and his wife, Mary, had discovered what the oldest known human remains were then. These discoveries supported Leakey's claim that the origins of the human species were in Africa, not in Asia or Europe as many had believed.

Leakey hoped that studies of the primate species most closely related to human beings—chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans— should light on the behavior of the human animal's ancestors. He chose me for this work because he believed

That as a woman I would be more patient and careful than a male observer and that as someone with little formal training I would be more likely to describe what I saw rather than what I thought I should be seeing.

In July 1960, I was twenty –six-years-old I went out for the first time for Gombe National Park in southeastern Africa to begin a study of the chimpanzees that lived in the forests along the shores of Lake Tanganyika. I had little formal training; still, I brought to my work my love of animal sand a desire for adventure. I thought at the time that the study might take three years. I ended up staying for more than two decades.

The 1970s saw changes in my understanding of the chimpanzees and in the way in which research was carried out at Gombe. In 1974 what I referred to as a "war" broke out between two groups of chimpanzees. One group eventually killed many members of the other group. I also witnessed a series of acts of infanticide (the killing of an infant) on the part of one of the older female chimps. These appearances of the darker side of chimpanzee behavior forced me to adjust my interpretation of these animals as being basically gentle and peace loving.

Article posted March 30, 2011 at 05:55 PM GMT0 • comment • Reads 213

Article posted February 17, 2011 at 09:31 AM GMT0 • comment • Reads 53

My name is Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi and I was born on October 2, 1869. My father was the prime minister of the prince’s court. My mother taught my brothers and I about our religion. Our religion is Jainism. I grew up and believed in karma.

I got married when I was thirteen years old and my wife was a very beautiful woman. I was very shy and I was even scared of the dark. I was a weak student and I barley graduated from college. I unfortunately had to leave my wife and go to London. When I returned home I found that my mother was dead.

One winter night in South Africa I was traveling by train on a business trip when a white passenger came up to me and told me to go to third class because of my race. When I refused a steward threw me off the train in the middle of nowhere.

After that I returned to India with my wife and four sons. The British government was very furious and they were killing many innocent people who were like me asking for independence from British rule. I lead a peaceful movement and after many years India finally won its independence during World War II

In 1944 my wife died and I was extremely sad. India was witnessing a lot of problems between the Hindus and Muslims which I detested. The evening of January 30, 1948 as I walked to the prayer many people awaiting me a Hindu man named Nathuram Godse fired a bullet in my chest. The last words that I said were, “RAMA, RAMA, RAMA,” meaning I forgive you, I love you and I bless you.

Article posted February 17, 2011 at 09:31 AM GMT0 • comment • Reads 53

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