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teacher: Mrs. B - Grade 5 (2010-2011)

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Heart Dissection 04/01/11
My Most Honest Moment 03/28/11
I am From 03/28/11
Smelly 03/28/11
Trees 03/28/11
Muddy Shoes 03/28/11
Cent Mots 03/15/11
1st Expository Text 02/17/11
Ramlieh 01/18/11
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My Reading Log Wordle 11/02/10
Typing 12/07/09
French Blog 02/19/09
My Goals 11/12/08
I'm a Wild One! 10/16/08

Title: 5A - 1st Expository Text (02/17/11)
Description: This assignment was part of a science project.

Article posted April 1, 2011 at 11:55 AM GMT0 • comment (1) • Reads 700

Waterfalls: The Beautiful Creation

All the water coming from the mountain side…so beautiful yet it can be dangerous. You can see them when you are in the mountains. A waterfall is having a slope of 30 degree is a waterfall. What am I talking about? Waterfalls.


Are you wondering how waterfalls are formed? Waterfalls are formed by erosion. The river and the rain carry the sediments down the mountain side. Erosion means that the sediments get moved around. Sediments are rocks that get broken into smaller pieces by agents such as water, wind, and ice. But in waterfalls, only water causes erosion. Soft rock erodes more quickly than hard rocks. So you get a difference in level – and that’s a waterfall. So what makes a big waterfall? It takes over thousands, even million years to form a waterfall!!! If the river has a small amount of water (cascade) then the waterfall is small. Waterfalls form where water flows from hard to soft rock. Soft rock erodes faster, creating a vertical drop over the hard rock edge.

Waterfalls occur when band of rock crosses under a river. The water can’t wear the hard rock down, but it wears down soft rock, eventually this creates a steep drop.

Plunge Pool

When the water hits the bottom, after years and years they form a little bowl at the bottom of a waterfall that is called a boiling pot or plunge pool. In the plunge pool when an animal or anything comes down a waterfall it falls at the Boiling Pot and dies. They die because the water tends to go in circles and the animals can’t get out.

Millions of Years

Some waterfalls are incredibly high and some can be small, but have a large amount of water. Some are very high but have a small amount of water. So what makes a big waterfall? It takes over thousands, even million years to form a waterfall!!!


You find waterfalls in every single continent except in Antarctica because the crust, a hard rock that is on top of the magma, is ice (all water) so there can’t be any waterfalls.

One of the famous fall, Victoria Falls, was formed in another way. The Zambezi River flowed along a gigantic crack then the rock eroded or got soft. The crack got bigger and bigger and the river flowed in the crack and became a waterfall.

One of the famous fall, Victoria Falls, was formed in another way. The Zambezi River flowed along a gigantic crack then the rock eroded or got soft. The crack got bigger and bigger and the river flowed in the crack and became a waterfall.

Waterfalls can be exquisite. I think in the future waterfalls will keep growing. I think water will continue to erode the waterfall’s side. I hope you enjoyed learning about waterfalls. They can be (based on their features) ledge falls, slide falls, parallel falls, staircase falls (my favorite), and combination falls.3 m and very steep

Article posted April 1, 2011 at 11:55 AM GMT0 • comment (1) • Reads 700

Article posted February 17, 2011 at 10:42 AM GMT0 • comment • Reads 147

Cliffs: And You Think They Are Boring!


On the side of oceans the land next to it doesn’t make sense. There are landforms that people commit suicide by jumping off of them. They are eaten by the sea to make a shape that looks like the top and left or right sides of a square. Cliffs.


The formation

Cliffs are formed due to the processes of withering and erosion. They are mostly made of sandstone, chalk, and dolomite. Igneous rocks such as granite and basalt also often form cliffs.

Cliffs are formed by the ocean slowly eating the high land (that’s on the side) basically has to do with the high land on the side of oceans. It will eat the land until it makes a specific shape takes place even then It won’t end, it’s just going to get bigger the only thing it has to do is eat the side land leaving a sharp steep cliff.(it means ocean) it makes the land look like the top and right or left sides of a square. Weathering is the process that makes rocks smaller. Erosion is the process that moves the weathered rock. I can also tell you that even when an ocean eats the land the land dissolves in the ocean.


The areas

The most widespread landforms of coasts are sea cliffs. These very steep to upward bedrock cliffs range from only a few meters high to hundreds of meters above sea level. Their upward nature is the result of wave-induced erosion near sea level as a result of collapsed rocks at higher height. Cliffs that extend to the shoreline commonly have a notch cut into them where waves have battered the bedrock surface.


The most famous cliff

There are lots of famous cliffs like the Troll Wall in Norway and the Nanga Parbat which is the biggest mountain side cliff in the world and Mount Thor the highest vertical faced drop in the whole world! So I think its Mount Thor that is the most famous or maybe the Naga Parbat.


In the future these cliffs get larger, and larger they will not stop they will also get deeper and deeper as the ocean consumes the land. They will continue to make the cliffs larger. So the future to these landforms just creates thin, dangerous land.


Article posted February 17, 2011 at 10:42 AM GMT0 • comment • Reads 147

Article posted February 17, 2011 at 10:41 AM GMT0 • comment • Reads 284

Rock Bridges; A creation by the force of nature!


A landform unlike any other, an unusual one if that’s how you want to say it. It’s a landform found mainly in dry places. Rock bridges! They look like they were made by man, but they are actually made by the force of nature.

What do they look like?


A rock bridge looks like a large half circle sitting on the ground with a big hole in the middle. Rock bridges look to me like two things. 1-They look a bit like donuts because of the whole that is placed right in the middle. 2-They look also like rainbows because they are shaped like an arch. But as you know everyone can have their own opinions.

Weathering (when rocks get broken into smaller pieces) starts the whole thing, then comes erosion, then comes a natural rock bridge. Natural rock bridges and arches (same thing) are usually formed in deserts by erosion which is caused by moving water and sand in the wind. Most rock bridges over thousands of years become narrower from rivers, which very slowly wear down and cut under these red and orange cliffs made out of sandstone. Wind and rain slowly start making tiny holes in the cliffs. Then after a while, the holes get bigger, and after that even bigger until a big hole is formed in the middle, so that it forms an arch. Sometimes, when sinkholes form, some of the cave roof does not tumble down; this can also create a rock bridge. Some rock bridges may look a little bit like arches, but they form into the path of streams that wear away and penetrate the rock. Pothole arches form by chemical weathering, when water collects into pools and eventually cuts through to the layer below. I have seen them myself, which is in the Arches National Park in Utah (U.S.). I thought they looked really cool. Let me tell you the exact steps of how they are formed. 

Deep cracks cut into a sandstone layer.

Erosion wears away upper layers of rock and then enlarges the surface cracks, creating narrow sandstone walls, or fins. Changing frosts and defrosts causes crumbling the sandstone and after a while cuts through some of the fins.

Where do you find them?

Rock bridges are found where cliffs are face to erosion from the sea, rivers or wind and weather. Whatever they’re made from determines where they are found. They are usually found near seas or rivers, or in open areas like deserts. For example, in Utah most of them are made by wind. Therefore they are found in a desert of Utah.

What’s the most famous one?

Of all of the arches throughout the world, the delicate arch is by far the most recognizable. It is located in Arches National Park which is in the United States. This sandstone arch is 52 feet tall. It is so famous that it appears on the license plates of cars in Utah.


Like I said before, rock bridges are formed by erosion. It may occur that the erosion would keep on eroding away small particles from the sides of the arch. Sooner or later the sides would get so thin that they would not be able to support the top. As a result the bridge would collapse. The holes become bigger to arch proportions by rock falls and weathering. The arches eventually fall down; leaving only buttresses that in time will erode.

You now know how rock bridges are formed. You also know where you find them and how they look. I suggest know, since you know all about rock bridges to go and see them for yourself. Go and see a landform that you will never forget how cool it looks. Rock bridges!!!



Article posted February 17, 2011 at 10:41 AM GMT0 • comment • Reads 284

Article posted February 17, 2011 at 10:39 AM GMT0 • comment • Reads 243

There are so many in this world. One of them is at the mouth of the Mississippi it is shaped like a bird’s foot .I am going to give you a clue it starts with a ‘D’. It’s a Delta!!!! Delta is formed by deposition.


 A delta is an area of land shaped like a triangle where a river deposits sediment such as mud, sand and pebbles as the river enters the sea.

When a river flows to the sea, it brings with it a lot of sand and silt that it has picked up on its journey. Where a river ends and it flows, in the sea it is called “Rivers Mouth.”This is where the river flows to another river, lake or sea. It suddenly starts flowing slow. It is longer capable of carrying its loads that’s what they call sediments in a river. Some people live on deltas .The soil is very good for farming.


Deltas are found in the end of huge rivers like the Mississippi River or the Nile River for example.

What Will Happen in The Future?

I think what will happen in the future is the Nile River delta will become wider and the Mississippi delta will become longer because after a long time the water will push and the delta will become bigger or wider .

The Most Famous Ones

The most famous ones are the Nile River delta and the Mississippi River delta, but the most famous one from both is the Mississippi delta because it’s shaped like a bird’s foot and the other deltas don’t have shapes.

Delta is a very interesting subject to learn about before I thought it was boring, but at the end it’s actually fun. I hope you like deltas. Now you learned about them.

Article posted February 17, 2011 at 10:39 AM GMT0 • comment • Reads 243

Article posted February 17, 2011 at 10:39 AM GMT0 • comment • Reads 155

River valleys are probably the most common valley on the earth. They are carved by a river into the shape of the letter v, and that is why they are called v shaped valleys.


River valleys are formed when a river runs near mountains or cliffs. Two mountains meet at the bottom of the of the valley and in between flows a river. Erosion moves sediments into the river and then the river moves the sediments to other places. Erosion is the movement of sediments from one place to another. The agents of erosion are water, ice, wind and humans because erosion can also be manmade. Sediments are small pieces of rock which are broken down by weathering which is when pieces of rock break down into pieces by wind or water. But river valleys are formed that way through eroding water.

Where do You Find Them

You find river valleys in areas where there are mountains or hills. That is because valleys are areas were mountain or hills meet. There is a river valley in Hawaii called The Lao valley and it looks like a perfect v. There is also a river valley in the mountains of the Swiss Alps called the Muretto Pass.

The Most Famous River Valley

The most famous river valley is the Yangtze and it is also the longest. It is found in China and is 6,300 kilometers long. 400,000,000 people live there that is equal to one third of China’s population. The Yangtze River is the third largest in the world.

I think that in the future river valleys will get deeper and deeper because water will carve deeper down over time. But it could take thousands and thousands of years for that to happen. Also I think that in the future there will be more river valleys because later on more mountains will form. So then there will be more river valleys.

Article posted February 17, 2011 at 10:39 AM GMT0 • comment • Reads 155

Article posted February 17, 2011 at 10:29 AM GMT0 • comment • Reads 162


Sinkholes: The Swallowing Monster



You might think sinkholes are not important. Well you are wrong, because sinkholes are a very big deal. They are hollow holes in the ground that can suck up any objects like humans and cars. If you find a sinkhole look in a limestone region because that is where they are mostly formed. Since sinkholes are a very big deal the thing they are most important about is that they can create enormous destruction. They can even swallow entire buildings.



Can you believe of what sinkholes can do and what information they have, well let’s find out. After a sinkhole is formed it has a hole that can lead to caves or caverns. A sinkhole’s minimum width and length is five acres. Sinkholes are like caves because when sinkholes are formed they make a cave but after their roof collapses. Sinkholes are so huge enough that they can swallow a human from all the way to sky scrapers. One time a women was swallowed and stayed into a sinkhole for three hours but finally got help. Sinkholes are formed when carbon dioxide and water react together making carbonic acid which makes the weakening ground collapse. The cool thing about a sinkhole is that you need a sinkhole to form a geyser. Sinkholes might seem cool but if you’re an adult they could make you really mad. How, sometimes your most valuable car can be sunk into a sinkhole. Sinkholes also relate to landslides and landslides can lead to or make avalanches.                                                     


When you go and look for a sinkhole look in a limestone region because that is where they are mostly found. When you find I am saying for your own sake don’t get near it because when you get trapped you won’t be able to live on anything. The reason why a sinkhole is always in a limestone region is because the limestone floor is very weak which makes the sinkhole being able to suck the floor up. Now you know that if you see a sinkhole or your near limestone I would run because I don’t want to get stuck in the ground for a day, would you?


When you think about sinkholes forming everywhere remember sinkholes only form in a limestone region and if you see any reaction of a sinkhole if I were you I would run or else you will get swallow whole by the ground.


Don’t think that after sinkholes are formed they do something useful like other landforms, well they don’t. All their use is to swallow people if people walk by. The reason why nothing happens after it is formed is because it is just a very big deep hole in the ground. Another reason why is because you are not going to spend a week just filling a sinkhole with cement to build a building on top. Why would it take a week, because the average length (how deep it is) is over 100 feet deep. The most biggest sinkhole in all of the world was in Cairo, Egypt and it was 125 kilometers deep (75 miles). Finally, the last reason why it has no future is if it has no use it has no future.           


Article posted February 17, 2011 at 10:29 AM GMT0 • comment • Reads 162

Article posted February 17, 2011 at 10:28 AM GMT0 • comment • Reads 736

Mesas: A Giant’s Table


I’ve only seen them in books and on the internet but they are very popular as scenery of cowboy movies because this type of landform does not exist in Lebanon. Mesas have steep drops and flat tops. The most famous ones are in the south west of the United States. They are rare to find.



How are mesas formed? They are formed by weathering and erosion of horizontally layered rocks that have been uplifted by tectonic activity. Erosion means the transportation of sediments and weathering means the breakdown of rocks. Different types of rock to resist weathering and erosion at different rate. The weaker kind of rocks erodes faster, leaving the more resistant kind of rocks standing. This is called differential erosion. The hard rock’s erode slower than soft rock. Lava flows and sill often form the top or caprock of a mesa, and these are very hard rocks. The less resistant rock layers are mainly made up of softer rock that weathers and erodes more easily. Mesas are only formed by wind erosion acts like sand sandpaper it is the sand that gets carried away in the wind.

Where are they found?

Mesas are found in dry rocky deserts, because they need strong wind and sand. They need sand because the wind carries the sand and the sand erodes the rock.

What are they used for:

Mesas are used as a back drop in cowboy movies. They thought cowboys lived around them. They also use them for rock climbing. Climbers like to climb them because they are steep and when they reach the top there is a nice view.

What lives on a mesa?

One organism associated with mesa is a Road Runner. Road Runners live in deserts. There is a cartoon about a road that runs around in deserts and sets traps on mesas. 


I think mesas will get smaller and smaller and smaller by erosion until it is gone and new ones will get formed.

Article posted February 17, 2011 at 10:28 AM GMT0 • comment • Reads 736

Article posted February 17, 2011 at 10:25 AM GMT0 • comment • Reads 150

Sand Dunes: Huge piles of Sand


Sand dunes are huge hills made of sand that can weigh up to tons. They come in several shapes and sizes like crescents or star shaped and many other forms. Some make loud booming sounds when they are disturbed! Scientists are still trying to find out why. So what shapes these piles of sand? 


Sand Dune Formation

Sand dunes are formed when wind lifts up a huge quantity of sand and deposits it on a certain obstacle such as a rock. Later on, when the sand piles up in a huge quantity, it forms a barrier. When the barrier gets really big after a long period of time, it loses balance which makes it easy for the wind to break the sand barrier. Then the wind gives it shape and there you have it, a sand dune is formed. Sand dunes can be formed by two agents of weathering; wind and waves. The same process takes place when waves create sand dunes and when wind creates sand dunes. Creating sand dunes takes weathering, erosion, and deposition. Weathering is when rock breaks up into smaller pieces which turn into sediments over a period of time, and if there were no sediments there would be no sand because sediments are sand. Erosion is the movement of sediments while deposition is the end of erosion. Sand needs weathering because as I told you before, weathering creates sand. Dunes also need erosion because in order to have a sand dune, a huge amount of sand should be dumped in one spot, but if there was no erosion the sand would not be able to move at all. Last but not least dunes need deposition in order to get the sand to stop in one spot.

Where Are Sand Dunes Located?

 You find sand dunes on the European coast that is bordering the Atlantic Ocean. You also find sand dunes on the western side of North America and of course all around sandy desserts. You find them on the European coast because waves create sand dunes, and the Atlantic Ocean has humongous waves. You find sand dunes on the western side of North America because California is a very windy place and is next to the Pacific Ocean. Another reason for sand dunes to be found on the western side of North America because you can find some desserts there You find sand dunes in every sandy desert, because deserts are often windy and sandy which makes the end product of sand and wind together Easy to predict.

The Most Famous Sand Dune

The most famous sand dune is the Cerro Blanco Sand Dunes in Peru. It is the highest sand dune in the world. The real name of this sand dune is in Quechua language is Yuraq Orqjo which means White Mountain. It is located on the east of Nazca Valley. The height of the Cerro Blanca Sand Dune is 2070 m.    



In my opinion, I think sand dunes will be eroded in the sea in the future. I think this because if erosion keeps going on for years eventually something has to go wrong. And if there was a lot of eroded sand in the sea either the sea level will get higher or the sea turns into a gigantic pile of mud! And there you have it. I hope you one day get the chance to go see one of those huge gigantic sand dunes.   


Article posted February 17, 2011 at 10:25 AM GMT0 • comment • Reads 150

Article posted February 17, 2011 at 10:25 AM GMT0 • comment • Reads 223


Caves: Magnificent Underground Chambers


They are damp, they are dark and deep. They are also very hollow to. Some people think that they are creepy. They are used by a lot of people because they explore and walk in them. If you like to explore or if you like to exercise I suggest you go for a walk or explore in a cave. If you want you can go to see a cave and see things you have never seen things before. I know a famous cave it is in Lebanon and it is called Jieta. It is very nice it has lots of nice spelothems that naturally made. They look like underground chambers. Caves are underground passage ways. Often with uneven floors.


Step one of forming a cave, When water mixes with carbon dioxide which will create carbon acid. Carbon acid will dissolve anything in its way. Step two, Carbon acid dissolves lime stone which is called weathering. Lime stone is easier to dissolve. Step three water will run away into cracks and hit a flat surface but if that flat surface is lime stone the water will cause a hole, the hole will keep getting bigger. That is how caves are formed. Caves are landforms that are created by water, wind, and weathering and erosion. Water that drops and tumbles from cracks can make a cave deeper because of its pressure. Caves are also formed by weathering because of the water bashes on the side of a cliff which causes a hole. Second wind hits the hole which causes it to get deeper. Third rain drops cause cracks until they turn the hole into a cave. Did you know that creatures that live in caves lay eggs and build nests in caves? Some caves have speleothems which look like spikes either hanging from the ceiling or coming out of the ground. Some cave passage ways are not always dissolved by water but sometimes by regular water. Carbon acid can also dissolve limestone. The creatures that live in caves mostly live in the twilight zone. Some animals, mostly bears use caves for shelter. Do you know that bats live in caves because they are nocturnal, which means that they sleep in the morning and wake up at night. So a cave or a cavern is a natural underground space large enough for a human to enter. Some people suggest that the term cave should only apply to natural cavities some part in which total darkness; however, in popular usage, the term includes smaller spaces like sea caves, rock shelter, and grottos. But the problem is that they take a while to form. Erosion can also cause caves to form. Erosion is when an object is moved. You might ask how erosion can help form a cave. Well erosion can help form caves because erosion can move rocks that are in caves.

The most famous cave is the Crystal cave. The Crystal Cave is the biggest and nicest one of all.

Caves are used by many people. Such as the French use their caves to store their wine because the temperature in a cave stays the same, it does not change. Also people store nuclear waste because it is far away from civilization. Caves are also used for getting bacteria because people who make cheese need bacteria for taste; Blue cheese is a type of cheese that needs bacteria for taste.

Lots of organisms live in caves. These are the organisms are bats, scorpions, spiders, snakes, and Bears also other animals. These organisms live in caves for shelter.

What do they look like?

Do you Know what caves look like?


In the future caves will become larger and larger over time. because weathering will still cause rain drops to bash on to cliff sides. Erosion will still move rocks. Also sea waves will keep bashing onto cliff sides. ``

Article posted February 17, 2011 at 10:25 AM GMT0 • comment • Reads 223

Article posted February 17, 2011 at 10:25 AM GMT0 • comment • Reads 317

Oxbow Lakes: A Crescent Moon on the Landscape

There are lakes that are quiet unusual in shape, they look like a crescent moon, and what’s more, you don’t find them everywhere. How do these lakes get these funny shapes?



These funny shaped lakes are called oxbow lakes. An oxbow lake is formed when a wide river slows down. The closer the river gets to the ocean, the flatter the landscape becomes and the slower the river flows. It sometimes begins to wind through the landscape in broad, looping curves called meanders. Some meanders will grow out into much broader loops than others. Then the neck of the loop may become very narrow as the loop grows. Where the flow is slow, the water deposits its sediments or remains of organisms and fine particles of rock and dirt that the river has torn away from its banks. Where the river flow is fast, it erodes those sediments. These sediments are deposited and start to block the entrance of an oxbow lake. An oxbow lake is formed by erosion and deposition. You may wonder what they are: erosion is when sediments get moved (movement of sediments) and deposition is when sediments settle down somewhere. The main agent of a formation of an oxbow lake is water because it’s formed in water as you can predict by the title. The water finally flows into the ocean. The old channel may cut off to an area of water forming oxbow lakes.

Slowing Down

Oxbow lakes are found where there is a strong river flow but at the same time a place where there is flat land, so basically they could be found anywhere! You can find lots of them in Lake Chicot.

Lake Chicot

The most famous oxbow lake is found in North America, Lake Chicot (located near Lake Village, Arkansas) it was originally part of the Mississippi River. And it is famous for its length.


In the future, I think that oxbow lakes are will continue to form. Because I think in the future all the land will get flat and water will run fast and more oxbow lakes will form!


Article posted February 17, 2011 at 10:25 AM GMT0 • comment • Reads 317

Article posted February 17, 2011 at 10:21 AM GMT0 • comment • Reads 301

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Geysers; the Great Water Spout



There are thousands of them in Wyoming. Some spout higher than the Empire State Building. They are so strong that they can generate electricity. Countries are famous because of them. Still don’t know what I am talking about? Geysers! How are these amazing landforms shaped? What are these amazing land forms anyway?              





Water Spouts in the Ground

What do geysers look like? Well geysers look a little like volcanoes except they are a hole in the ground not a hole on the top of a mountain but they can have huge crater. And geysers spout water, not magma (lava). Geysers are holes in the ground, sometimes very big and sometimes very small. For example, Old Faithful(in Yellowstone National Park), the most famous geyser in the world, spouts about 33 meters high every 65 minutes.


The formation of geysers is not that complicated. Even though it takes a lot of time, once geysers are active, they can last for centuries until the heat source disappears. For a geyser to form you basically need an underwater plumbing system. How are you going to get that? Erosion. Erosion is the movement of the sediments. Water is the main agent of Erosion. So once the underwater chambers and paths are eroded and, water can get in there is one more thing. How do you think the water gets heated up? Volcanic activity! You need recent or present volcanic activity. That also answers why you have them on the edge of continental plates. What is a continental plate? A continental plate is a piece of the crust that is land. That’s why you call it a continental plate. What is the crust? The crust is the outer layer of the earth. The crust is broken into large pieces which are our continents. Who said that? Alfred Wegener. Who is that? He is the one who proposed the theory of continental drift which is the movement of the continents from the convection currents. The second reason is that most geysers are on the borders of the continents are so that water can get in from the oceanic plates. What is an oceanic plate? An oceanic plate is like a continental plate except that it is filled with water. So when the water gets into the chamber, the water gets heated up from the volcanic activity so the water at the bottom of the chamber turns into steam. The water gets in to so much pressure that it explodes.


A lot of animals live next to geysers. For example bison, deer, ducks, and fish and etc. You usually find geysers next to water source for example a hot spring, lake or even the ocean.

You find them there because there is water. When it is next to a hot spring half the work is done because the water is heated! Geysers are useful because they can produce electricity. So countries like New Zealand, They sometimes rely on electricity from the geysers.





Well, basically what will happen is that the heat sources of geysers will disappear and the geysers will deactivate because they have nothing to heat up the water. The most important thing for a geyser is the hot water because that is the only type of water that will explode.                  

Article posted February 17, 2011 at 10:21 AM GMT0 • comment • Reads 301

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