Surface waters are the natural water resources of the Earth. They are found on the exterior of the Earth’s crust and include: Microorganisms that live in water feed on biodegradable substances. When too much biodegradable material is added to water, the number of microorganisms increase and use up the available oxygen. This is called oxygen depletion. A lot of the Earth’s water is found underground in soil or under rock structures called aquifers. Humans often use aquifers as a means to obtain drinking water, and build wells to access it. When this water becomes polluted it is called groundwater pollution. Groundwater pollution is often caused by pesticide contamination from the soil, this can infect our drinking water and cause huge problems.
4. Nutrients pollution:
This can contaminate drinking water and clog filters.
This can be damaging to other aquatic organisms as the algae use up the oxygen in the water, leaving none for the surrounding marine life.
Nutrients are essential for plant growth and development. Many nutrients are found in wastewater and fertilisers, and these can cause excess weed and algae growth if large concentrations end up in water.
5. Microbiological pollution:
Many types of microorganisms live in water and cause fish, land animals and humans to become ill. Microorganisms such as:
Serious diseases such as cholera come from microorganisms that live in water. These diseases usually affect the health of people in poorer countries, as they do not have the facilities to treat polluted water.
Microbiological water pollution is usually a natural form of water pollution caused by microorganisms.
6. Suspended matter pollution:
The suspended particles eventually settle and cause a thick silt at the bottom. This is harmful to marine life that lives on the floor of rivers or lakes.
Biodegradable substances are often suspended in water and can cause problems by increasing the amount of anaerobic microorganisms present.
Toxic chemicals suspended in water can be harmful to the development and survival of aquatic life.
Some pollutants do not dissolve in water as their molecules are too big to mix between the water molecules. This material is called particulate matter and can often be a cause of water pollution.
7. Chemical pollution:
Metals and solvents from industrial work can pollute rivers and lakes. These are poisonous to many forms of aquatic life and may slow their development, make them infertile or even result in death.
Pesticides are used in farming to control weeds, insects and fungi. Run-offs of these pesticides can cause water pollution and poison aquatic life. Subsequently, birds, humans and other animals may be poisoned if they eat infected fish.
Petroleum is another form of chemical pollutant that usually contaminates water through oil spills when a ship ruptures. Oil spills usually have only a localised affect on wildlife but can spread for miles. The oil can
cause the death of many fish and stick to the feathers of seabirds causing them to lose the ability to fly.
Industrial and agricultural work involves the use of many different chemicals that can run-off into water and pollute it.
Anyway, none of these things are good. Along with water pollution, oil spills can occur too.
Oil spills fill our oceans with dead fish, ( and other animals,) and causes global warming. An example is the oil spill on the gulf of Mexico. The oil spill killed a large number of birds, many sea turtles, and threatened lives for all marine life. While I'm on the subject of oil spills, just the other day ago, New Zealand had an oil spill. The crew was sailing in shallow waters in a cargo ship carrying oil, and the big ship crashed into a sandbar causing the oil to fall and come out in gushes. As of today, they are obviously still cleaning up after the oil spill.
Well, that's all, and I hope you take these ideas to mind.
Thanks to my sources,
Real Life Concerns About Water Effects of Water Pollution
Water Pollution Guide Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill Top 5 Oil Spills HYPERLINK "http://www.gdrc.org/uem/water/watershed/urban-water-pollution.html"Preventing Urban Water Pollution Reply to Ask-an-Earth-Scientist Information about urban water pollution and how to help prevent it can be found at this site. Reply to Ask-an-Earth-Scientist
Thanks for listening!
3. Groundwater pollution: